In 2017 I graduated in the LJMU MA in Criminal Justice. My dissertation w

as on 21st century Original Sin: ie the total surveillance state’s penchant for assuming our guilt; never caring to prove our innocence; and leaving all burden of proof on the victims – ie we, the democratic citizens! – were we ourselves to care, or even dare, to presume otherwise.

From the abstract:

“This dissertation discusses surveillance by public and private sectors, presenting the concept of a God 2.0 which undermines Criminal Justice’s ‘innocent until proven guilty’. An understanding of surveillance devices used in Criminal Justice is provided. Citizens often understand surveillance as physical, the literally watched. In digital environments the physical is not everything. The research methods chosen to examine this reality, and why, in the light of thinking on the nature of creativity and thought, are explored.


Through the data-analysis and coding processes used, six themes are presented. The three most salient are focussed on. Two suggested future strategies are provided, aimed at leading to a societal partnership in surveillance and tracking via open-source, open-data and citizen-located philosophies.”

The dissertation minus appendices can be found online here:

Also published on Medium.

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